Image Page on Chile

Include pictures, and at least one panorama image, and a webcam image from two different times.

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Outline

    1. Landscapes

        1.1  Torres del Paine National Park

        1.2  Atacama Desert

        1.3  The Atacama Giant

        1.4  Valdivian Temperate Rain Forest

    2.  Cities

        2.1  Santiago Skyline

        2.2  Temuco City Center

        2.3  Hill of Residences from Downtown Valparaiso

        2.4  Antofagasta

    3.  Landmarks

        3.1  La Moneda Palace, Santiago

        3.2  Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral

        3.3  San Marcos Church, Arica

        3.4  Malleco Viaduct, Araucania

    4.  Images of People

        4.1 - 4.2  Photo Opportunity at Scenic Overlook, Santiago (Webcam)

        4.3  Horseback Riding, Easter Island (Panorama)

        4.4  Mapuche Women in Traditional Dress

    5.  Images from the book

        1.1  Flowering Lupins, Carretera Austral

        1.2  Gaucho, Parque Nacional Torres Del Paine

1.  Landscapes

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Figure 1.1.  Torres del Paine National Park. Torres del Paine National Park is located in central Chile and attracts tourists from all over the world. Show in the image above are the iconic three peaks of the Paine mountain range, which is part of the Andes. This national park, which is the most-visited in the country, was established in 1959 and has continued to grow. The park now has an area of nearly 450,000 acres. The park provides opportunities for hiking, kayaking, biking, fishing, and horseback riding.

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https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/destinations/south-america/chile/torres-del-paine-national-park-photos/

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Figure 1.2.  Atacama Desert.  Comparing Figure 1.1 to Figure 1.2 shows the diverse terrain of Chile. The Atacama Desert, located in northern Chile and west of the Andes, is one of the driest regions in the world. According to NASA, parts of the Atacama Desert can receive as little as 1-3 mm of precipitation per year. The colors in this photograph are a sharp contrast to the vast amount of water and snow shown in Torres del Paine National Park.

 

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/destinations/south-america/chile/explore-chile-atacama-desert-stargazing/

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Figure 1.3.  The Atacama Giant.  The indigenous population of Chile has a rich and long history. Indigenous tribes have inhabited nearly every region of Chile for millennia. The dry, harsh climate of the Atacama is no exception. “Emerging out of a transfusion of The Late Formative Period  of Regional Developments (between 1000 and 1450 A.D.), a new tradition began that involved indigenous peoples branding the earth over which they traveled and these impressions remain today.” (Labash, 2012). There are many hypotheses on why these markings were left on the landscape, but there is no consensus of opinion on any one hypothesis.

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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/The_Giant_of_Atacama.jpg

Figure 1.4.    Valdivian Temperate Rain Forest.  Green and lush, the above photo shows how diverse the vegetation of Chile can be. Temperate rain forests are littered throughout southern Chile. They lie between the latitudes of 37 and 48 degrees south latitude. The Valdivian forests house some large native trees, which are becoming more scarce due to logging. As a result, conservation is a major concern. Awareness of these endangered rainforests has fueled a growing ecotourism industry. Ecotourism educates the general public on the consequences of clearing rain forests.

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 https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valdivian_temperate_rain_forest#/media/File%3AValdivian_temperate_rainforest.JPG

2.  Cities

Figure 2.1.  Santiago Skyline.  Santiago, the largest city in Chile, abuts the snowcapped Andes mountains. The tall glass building in the foreground is the Titanium La Portada. It is the second-highest skyscraper in the country and is located in in Santiago’s financial district. When designing buildings in Santiago, architects and engineers must consider the damage that earthquakes can cause. Santiago is seismically affected by what is known as the Chile Triple Junction, where three tectonic plates converge (Nelson, 1994). With this in mind, the Titanium La Portada is designed to withstand an earthquake of 9.0 on the Richter Scale.

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https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/intelligent-travel/2011/10/26/i-heart-my-city-kristinas-santiago-de-chile/

Figure 2.2.  Temuco City Center.  Overlooking the city center, Temuco is the sixth-largest city in Chile. Temuco lies in a valley and is equidistant from the Pacific Ocean and the Andes mountain range. The view in this photograph is from Cerro Ñielol, which is a forested hill and the highest point in the city. This hill is a protected park, and is one of the last native forests that exist in this part of Chile. 

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temuco#/media/File:Vista_Temuco.jpg

Figure 2.3.  Hillside Residences from Downtown Valparaiso. Shown above are the steep hills of Valparaiso. The steep grade of these inclines make public transportation access impossible. In order to transport goods and citizens up and down the hills, the city has built cable rail cars. Called “elevators,” these cable cars make it possible to live on such a steep hill. Dating back to the nineteenth century these “elevators” are just important today as they were in the 1800s.

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https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Valpara%C3%ADso#/media/File:Valparaiso_Hills.JPG

Figure 2.4. Antofagasta.  Antofagasta is a port city in northern Chile. It is located just south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Antofagasta was a part of Bolivia until 1879. As a result of winning the War of the Pacific over Bolivia, they annexed Antofagasta. The War of the Pacific was also known as the Saltpeter War. Saltpeter is another name for nitrates. The region that Peru, Bolivia, and Chile were fighting over were rich in nitrates. Nitrates were highly sought after to make fertilizer and gunpowder.

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http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-vXcoN-3fmZE/VQLiGhSNM5I/AAAAAAAADV8/zljmveGbSGM/s1600/Atacama%2BRegion%2B058.JPG

3.  Landmarks

Figure 3.1.  La Moneda Palace, Santiago. A city block downtown houses the original presidential palace. The president no longer resides here , but this building is still the center of Chilean government. The La Moneda Palace houses the presidents office, as well as the offices of cabinet members. At first glance, the Chilean flags look identical to the state flag of Texas. There is one major difference between the two. While the Chilean flag has a blue square with a white star in the upper-left corner, the Texas flag has a blue rectangle that takes up the entire length of the left side of the flag.

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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Palacio_de_La_Moneda_-_miguelreflex.jpg/1920px-Palacio_de_La_Moneda_-_miguelreflex.jpg

Figure 3.2  Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral.  This cathedral is the main Roman Catholic church in Santiago. The Metropolitan Cathedral is on the corner of the Plaza de Armas in old town Santiago. The architecture brings a Neoclassical style that was popular in Europe across the globe to South America. In the city center, the church is surrounded by modern office buildings, as seen on right side of photograph.

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https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Catedral_Metropolitana_de_Santiago_01_Chile.jpg

Figure 3.3  San Marcos Church, Arica.  The San Marcos Cathedral in Arica is interesting for many reasons.  The church was designed by the famous French engineer, Gustav Eiffel. Gustav Eiffel is known for his iconic eponymous tower in Paris. This church is made entirely of painted cast iron. Sections of cast iron were prefabricated in France, then shipped to Chile. Upon delivery, this church was assembled at the above site. 

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Catholic_Diocese_of_Arica#/media/File:AricaIglesiaSanMarcos.jpg

Figure 3.4.  Malleco Viaduct, Araucania.  When the Malleco railroad viaduct was built in 1890, it was considered the highest railroad bridge in the world. This photo shows the great beauty of a creation of man inserted amongst nature’s beauty. Spanning over 1100 feet across and over 300 feet wide, this bridge that now is past its quasquicentennial looks as if it could have been built yesterday.

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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e4/Viaducto_del_Malleco_%28Puente_Ferroviario%29.jpg

4.  Images of People

Figures 4.1 - 4.2.  Photo Opportunity at Scenic Overlook, Santiago (Webcam).  Tourists and locals alike enjoy hiking to the top of Cerro San Cristobal on a clear day to soak in majestic views of the greater Santiago area. The hill is the second-highest in the city, and takes about 45 minutes to walk to the top. Driving to the summit is also an option. 

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https://www.lookr.com/lookout/1522082167-Cerro-San-Cristóbal#action-play-year

Figure 4.4.  Mapuche Women in Traditional Dress. The Mapuche are the largest indigenous tribe in Chile. Many present-day Mapuche reside around Santiago. Much of the Mapuche tradition remains unchanged since ancient times. The Mapuche have survived three different attempts to conquer: the Inca, sixteenth century Spanish, and nineteenth century Europeans. Many were killed, but their traditions, lore, and language survive.

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http://static1.squarespace.com/static/592c7d1b59cc6892f6101007/t/5b6f17b5352f5356c8cc5d65/1534007245549/Mapuche+Women+Traditional+Dress.jpg?format=1500w

Figure 4.3.  Horseback Riding, Easter Island (Panorama).  Easter Island, located 2,300 miles off the coast of South America is one of the most remote islands in the world. Tourism companies offer camping tours on horseback. The Rapa Nui are the indigenous inhabitants of Easter Island. They are believed to be of Polynesian descent. Radiocarbon dating estimates their arrival between 300 and 1200 C.E. (Tarlach, 2017)

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https://www.easterisland.travel/tours/

4.  Images from the Book

Figure 4.4.  Flowering Lupins, Carretera Austral.  The word lupin, or lupine is derived from the Latin word for wolf, lupus. This flower is named for the belief that this plant devoured the soil’s resources - - wolf-like. (Collins English Dictionary). This photo is pleasing to the eye because the colorful flowers set the stage for the snowcapped mountain backdrop. Chile and Texas have another thing in common aside from the similar flag. The state flower of Texas is the Bluebonnet - - also known as a Lupin.

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Rough Guide to Chile & Easter Islands

Figure 4.5.  Gaucho, Parque Nacional Torres Del Paine.  To this day, Gauchos roam the Patagonia countryside. They are master rope men who would rather be riding horseback than bragging about horsepower. Many still wear the traditional attire that their great-great grandfathers wore. Modern, state-of-the art cattle operations have forced many Gauchos to look elsewhere for work. But as long as people eat beef in Patagonia, Gauchos will be canvassing the land.

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Rough Guide to Chile & Easter Island

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Works Cited:

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NASA.  https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/51312/rare-snow-in-atacama-desert-chile.

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Nelson, E., Forsythe, R, and Arit, I. Ridge collision tectonics in terrane development, Journal of South American Earth Sciences,  (1994).

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Kaminski, Anna. The Rough Guide to Chile & Easter Island (2015).

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Labash, Marika.   Atacama Giant. https://scholars.unh.edu/spectrum/vol2/iss1/3.

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Tarlach, Gemma. http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/deadthings/2017/10/12/easter-island-ancient-dna-shoots-down-one-rapanui-theory/#.XKGG4y-ZNdg.

Submitted by Stuart on March 29, 2019